In the last chapter we moved away from the realm of atheism (which holds that a supernatural creator does not exist) into believing in some form of a supernatural creator. This moves us into the realm of either theism (the belief in one or more “gods” which are distinct from physical creation) or pantheism (the belief that all creation is divine and is part of one god).
The question at hand then is this: Is the physical creation, which we experience with our senses, distinct from a supernatural creator or creators (theism), or is the physical creation simply part of a supernatural creator (pantheism)?
I find several insurmountable problems with pantheism. First, there is the problem of evil. If everything is divine and part of one god, then the concept of good and evil makes no sense. This is contrary to our experience (as expressed in previous self-evident truths).
Second, there is the problem of the distinct personalities of all people on Earth. Every individual on Earth appears to be a unique self-directed individual who is often in conflict with other people. Moreover, the religious beliefs of various people vary greatly. It is difficult to see how these realities line up with everything and everyone being divine and part of one god.
Third, modern science shows non-organic lifeless matter to normally follow strict laws of physics and chemistry. It is difficult to see how inorganic matter can be thought of as being divine and part of one god.
Fourth, modern biology understands life and intelligence to exist in clearly defined units, such as individual plants or individual animals. This seems contrary to all life being divine and part of one god.
From this I arrive at another self-evident truth:
Creation is distinctly separate from its creator.
For Further Reflection:
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